Instrument Type


Period and coverage


Post-Agung period (1963-1968)

Balloon-borne OPC25/dust-sondes, Minneapolis, Panama Canal (Panama), Churchill (Canada)


Dust-sonde (same design as OPC25 in Laramie soundings) with 1 or 2 size channels: N(diameter, Dp>275nm/300nm), N(Dp>375nm/450nm)


James Rosen (University of Wyoming)

Minneapolis (45°N):

2 soundings in 1963 (20th Aug and 9th Nov 1963)

4 soundings in 1964 (11th Jan, 5th May, 19th Aug, 29th Oct 1964)

4 soundings in 1965 (28th Apr, 22nd Jul, 12th Oct, 22nd Dec 1965)

1 sounding  in 1966 (7th Jun 1966)

2 soundings in 1967 (12th Jul 1967, 31st Aug 1968)

1 sounding   in 1968 (23rd Jan 1968)

Panama Canal Zone (9°N)

2 soundings in 1966 (12th and 14th Sept 1966)

2 soundings in 1968 (27th and 30th June 1966)

Churchill, Canada (59°N):

2 soundings in 1966 (27th and 30th June 1966)

Rosen, J. M. (1964): The Vertical Distribution of Dust to 30km, J. Geophys. Res., 69 (21), 4673-4767
Rosen, J. M. (1968): Simultaneous Dust and Ozone Soundings over North and Central America, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 73, no. 2, 479-486.

Balloon-borne solar extinction measurements, Minneapolis and Panama Canal (Panama)


4-telescope instrument to measure solar extinction at 4 wavelengths (367nm, 430nm, 595nm and 910nm).

The solar near-infra-red channel (910nm) measured aerosol extinction directly and the data is shown in Figures in the Annexe to Ted Pepin’s (1970) PhD thesis.

Ted Pepin (University of Wyoming)

Minneapolis (45°N):

2 soundings in July 1965 (13th & 28th July 1965)
1 sounding in November 1965 (20th Nov 1965)
1 sounding in July 1966 (29th July 1966)
2 soundings in Aug 1966 (3rd and 24th Aug 1966)
2 soundings in Sep 1966 (6th and 15th Sep 1966)
2 soundings in Dec 1966 (23rd & 30th Dec 1966)
1 sounding in January 1967 (19th Jan 1967)
2 soundings in Feb 1967 (1st and 24th Feb 1967)

1 sounding in March 1967 (10th Mar 1967)
3 soundings in April 1967 (1st , 12th and 18th Apr)
1 sounding in May 1967 (10th May 1967)
1 sounding in June 1967 (21st June 1967)
1 sounding in July 1967 (12th July 1967)
1 sounding in January 1968 (18th Jan 1968)

Panama Canal Zone (9°N)

1 sounding in 1966 (14th Sept 1966)

Pepin, T. J. (1970): “The use of extinction from high altitude balloons as a probe of the atmospheric aerosols”, Annexe to the PhD thesis of Ted Pepin, Univ, Wyoming, pp. 30-94.

Ground-based lidar, Lexington Massachusetts (42°N) and College, Alaska (65°N)


Ruby lidar (694nm)

Giorgio Fiocco, MIT, deceased  (backscatter ratio profiles tabulated in Gerald Grams PhD thesis)

Lexington, Massachusetts (42°N):

1964: Jan (2), Feb (4), Apr (10), May (7), Oct (3), Nov (9), Dec (3)

1965: Jan (3), Feb (7), Mar (11), Apr (2), May (2), Jun (1), Jul (2)

College, Alaska, USA  (65°N):

1964: Jul (2), Aug (7)



Searchlight measurements of Agung aerosol extinction (550nm) from New Mexico, USA (32°N)


US Army 60-inch anti-aircraft searchlight (General Electric Company model 1942) and 8-inch photo-multiplier detector (type C7140), see Elterman (1951)

Vertical profiles of scattered signals from searchlight using broadband emission (designed for density measurements) conducted at Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA). Needs reprocessing (with searchlight algorithms) for single-wavelength aerosol scattering.


Louis Elterman, deceased (AFCRL, Bedford, Massachusetts - n.b. Elterman (1966) “Atlas of aerosol attenuation” has Figures of 105 vertical profiles of the aerosol attenuation and extinction coefficients at 550nm derived from searchlight measurements conducted at Albuquerque, New Mexico. Data will need to be digitized).

1963: Dec (22 profiles)

1964: Feb (12 profiles), Mar (6 profiles), April (28 profiles), May (9 profiles), Jun (8 profiles), Jul (3 profiles), Sept (2 profiles), Oct (6 profiles), Nov (4 profiles), Dec (5 profiles)

Also around 60 searchlight soundings in 1965 and 40 in 1970 (see Elterman et al., 1973, Table 1)


Elterman, L. (1951): The measurement of stratospheric density distribution with the searchlight technique, J. Geophys. Res., 56, 509-520.

Elterman, L. (1966): An atlas of aerosol attenuation and extinction profiles for the troposphere and stratosphere, US Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories report, AFCRL, 66-828.

Elterman, L. (1966): Aerosol measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere, Applied Optics, vol. 5, no. 11, 1769-1776.

Elterman, L., Wexler, R and Chang, D. T. (1969): Features of tropospheric and stratospheric dust, Applied Optics, vol. 8, no. 5, 893-903.

Elterman, L., Toolin, R. B. and Essex, J. D. (1973): Stratospheric aerosol measurements with implications for global climate, Applied Optics, vol. 12, no. 2, 330-337.


High-altitude airborne in-situ impactor samples from 1963-65 Project Stardust U-2 flights


U-2 impaction-type particle collector samples – impaction onto surfaces of carbon on nitrocellulose film on electron-microscope specimen grids (see Stebbins, 1961 and Mossop, 1965 for details on the instrumentation and analysis methods).


James Friend, deceased (Isotopes Inc, Westwood, New Jersey, USA)


Size distribution of Agung aerosol measured on 3 NH flights (May, Jun, Aug 1963) (see Table 3 of Friend, 1966) and on 12 SH flights in sub-tropics and mid-latitudes 1963/4):

3 Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude U-2 flights:

sample 266: 7th May 1963 (31°N-33°N); sample 268: 30th July 1963 (32°N-33°N); sample 271: 13th Aug 1963 (32°N-32°N)

8 Southern Hemisphere sub-tropical U-2 flights:

sample xx1 : 11th Apr 1963 (15°S-35°S); sample xx2: 14th May 1963 (19°S-32°S); sample xx3: 28th May 1963 (18°S-25°S); sample xx4: 11th Jun 1963 (21°S-28°S); sample xx5:   9th Jul 1963 (15°S-21°S); sample xx6: 6th Aug 1963 (15°S-21°S); sample xx7: 12th Dec 1963 (15°S-19°S); sample xx8: 2nd Apr 1964 (15°S-18°S)

8 Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude U-2 flights: sample yy1 : 7th May 1963 (41°S-44°S); sample yy2: 21st May 1963 (40°S-44°S); sample yy3:  4th Jun 1963 (41°S-45°S); sample yy4: 18th Jun 1963 (40°S-45°S); sample yy5:  3rd Jul 1963 (40°S-44°S); sample yy6: 30th Jul 1963 (41°S-44°S); sample yy7: 3rd Dec 1963 (43°S-44°S); sample yy8: 7th Apr 1964 (41°S-45°S)

Feely, H. W., Katzman, D., Seitz, H., Davidson, B. and Friend, J. P.: Final report on Project Stardust,
vol. 1 (ch 1-6) Oct 1967, DASA report 2166,
Friend, J. P. (1966): Properties of the stratospheric aerosol, Tellus, 18, 465-473.
Stebbins, A. (1961): DASA report 539, see section 3 “Natural Stratospheric Dust” pages 20-36.
Mossop, S. C. (1964): Volcanic dust collected at an altitude of 20km, Nature, 203, 824-827.